Building elevator applications have become one of the indispensable conditions of buildings with the construction of low and high-rise buildings. It is a vehicle that is used vertically to carry people and loads and makes life easier. Electric models are widely used today. In this type of elevator, the cabin carrying loads and people is kept in the air with steel ropes. With the pulley system, the cabin connected to the steel lines can move up or down. The building elevator is also equipped with special braking systems in order to stop it at the desired location.
What is an Elevator: A vehicle powered by electricity that carries people or loads to certain stops between the vertical or horizontal guide rails, with the elevator manufacturing and elevator dimensions and a cabin that can accommodate people or loads, is called an elevator.
Elevator Types and Features?
The elevators, which are diversified according to their load carrying capacities, are produced by projecting them in accordance with the buildings. Elevators produced with different designs are also available in models with completely glass front, side and rear facades. These models, which offer interesting designs and unique usage opportunities for users, are called panoramic elevators. As a result of developing technology and scientific research and development studies, elevators are no longer used only in buildings. Elevators can be seen on many platforms, including even floating platforms. Such transport platforms are found on cruise ships and private yachts. Elevators also undertake human transportation duties in floating vehicles, apart from service elevators. In addition to the special project design of the yacht lift, the door, buttons and cabin are produced entirely in special stainless or glass. These devices are also used in the health sector. With various carrying capacities and cabin speeds, it is suitable for nursing homes, health centers, hospitals, etc. There are elevators in the areas. Especially in terms of health requirements, it should comply with hygiene rules and include measures against bacteria and diseases. Stretcher elevator doors, also known as patient elevators, are wider and cabin buttons are lower.
Types of Elevators
1) Electric Elevators:
They work by taking action by the command of the drive motor from the control panel and moving the cabin in the desired direction. The cabin works together with the counterweight.
The cabin and counterweight move up and down by a movement caused by the friction of the steel rope with the drive pulley. The cabin and counterweight are approximately equal in weight to each other.
2) Hydraulic Lifts:
Lifting work is carried out by means of an electrically driven pump that delivers hydraulic fluid to a lifter that directly or indirectly affects the cabin.
In these elevators, the downward movement is realized by the own weight of the cabin. In hydraulic elevators, the engine room is generally located at the first wall level.
There is an oil boiler and hydraulic assembly, control panel and hoses through which the hydraulic fluid passes. Inside the elevator shaft; cabin, counterweight if any, cylinder-piston system, suspension device and buffers.
3) Freight Elevator:
They are elevators installed to be used in factories, warehouses or parking lots. These elevators work successfully under severe environmental conditions.
The cabin or platform dimensions and engine powers of freight elevators built solely for the purpose of carrying loads are determined according to the largest amount of load to be carried. The freight elevators, designed according to the most difficult conditions of the building where they are installed, have various capacities from 500 Kg to 10,000 Kg.
The drive is mechanical or hydraulic.
4) Hospital Elevator:
They are the elevators that enable the patients to be transported in a comfortable and healthy way. These elevators have a carrying capacity of up to 1600 Kg, 2000 Kg and 2500 Kg. The distinctive feature of these elevators from other elevators is comfort and safety.
The cabin can be adjusted precisely according to the floors so that the hospital elevator does not shake when entering and exiting the elevator. They are elevators with extra equipment such as measures against power cuts, adjusted luminous flux, atnibacterial measures, and stainless parts.
5) Car Elevator:
These are the elevators used in cases where the top and basement floors of the buildings are allowed to be used as parking lots.
The capacities of vehicle lifts can be 3000 Kg.
6) Panoramic Elevator:
These elevators are used outdoors, in shopping malls, train stations…. In accordance with the architecture of the building, the drive can be made electrically and hydraulically.
7) Disabled Elevator:
Elevators designed for elderly, disabled and wheelchair users.
Another name for these elevators is stairlifts. These elevators differ from other elevators with features such as a wider entrance door, standard automatic door, lower horizontal position of the push buttons and embossed button buttons.
8) Dumbwaiter Elevator:
These elevators are generally used in hotels, restaurants and villas to transport plates, glasses and trays from the kitchen to the floor where food is eaten. They are designed for load carrying purposes only, in dimensions that people cannot enter.
Service elevators, which we can consider as small type freight elevators, have different carrying capacities from 50 Kg to 250 Kg.
9) Slope (horizontal) Elevator:
Horizontal elevators are human transport systems that are frequently used in airports, hospitals and university complexes in developed countries.
10) Machine Roomless Elevators:
Machine roomless elevators are especially used in places such as passenger terminals, multi-storey stores, shopping centers and educational, cultural and health institutions.
They provide significant advantages for designers, builders and building owners, especially in commercial buildings with higher passenger traffic and higher elevations. In these elevators, the drive machine is located above the elevator cabin or inside the shaft.
Elevator Safety and Standards?
Elevators have much more standards than any other device. Security measures are also more than other machines. The biggest reason for this is that it is fatal for people in case of an accident, the elevator is completely under control during its use, and it is used by any person who has not received special training. Therefore, the electronic, mechanical and electrical parts of the building elevator components must comply with the relevant safety requirements and standards.
How is the elevator used?
1. Walk towards the elevator lobby. Be sure to read the sign to make sure that the elevator you will get on goes to the floor you want.
2. Press the elevator button according to the desired direction.
3. If there is more than one elevator, head towards the next elevator.
4. Wait for the elevator to arrive. Check the direction indicators on the buttons to make sure that the elevator you are getting on is going in the desired direction.
5. Enter the elevator, select the floor you want on the keypad or panel, and then press the door close button to close the doors. If there are many people getting on the elevator, you should walk into the elevator to make room for other people.
6. When you reach the floor you want, the doors will open automatically, (You can press the door open button to open the doors.)
Since the beginning of time, people have sought a more efficient way of transporting goods and human passengers from one land to another. The first written report of an elevator came in the 1st century BC, when the Roman architect Vitruvius mentioned the Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes. its first elevator BC. Built around 235. Even before that, there is some doubt that a few ancient civilizations used elevators. Archaeologists have found shafts that can be used for elevator transportation in several ancient ruins. Since the 1st century, elevators powered by human, animal and water power have been widely used in the Roman Empire, most famously in the Roman Colosseum, where the elevator platform carries gladiators and wild animals to the level of the arena.
During the Middle Ages, many mountain monasteries used small “basket” elevators to transport people and goods to their high and secluded walls. Monasteries with no land access were built, with the only point of entry being an elevator. In 1793, a Russian mechanic and inventor created the first elevator that lifted his cabin using screw mechanisms. Its elevators were installed in two Russian royal palaces, Saint Petersburg and Moscow, and thirty years later in London.
The revolution in elevator technology started with the invention of hydraulics and electricity. Hydraulic elevators were mostly used to transport goods over small vertical distances. They worked on the principle that the water pump increases the pressure of the main piston, which pushes the load compartment upwards. This solution was impractical for tall buildings and was soon replaced by a multi-pulley rope elevator in 1850 (invented by Henry Waterman of New York).
Towards the end of the 19th century, some important discoveries were made regarding the use of electricity with elevators. German inventor Werner von Siemens built the first electric elevator in 1880, and a few years ago JW Meaker patented a method for safely opening and closing elevator doors.
Elevator History Timeline
The history and origin of elevators can be told in a timeline spanning over five thousand years. Here are some of the most important elevator-related milestones:
- 2900 BC – Egyptian emperor Cheops’ Great Pyramid at Giza is made of over 2 million stone cubes. Each cube weighed over 5 tons and was lifted to a height of 481 feet.
- 2500-1500 BC – Egyptian farmers transferred water from the Nile to irrigation canals using the counterweight arm.
- 600 BC – The Roman temple of Dianna was built in Ephesus. They used sandbag ramp bridges to erect more than 2,000 stone pillars that support the main temple roof.
- 236 BC – Greek mathematician and engineer Archimedes invented the first elevator based on ropes, weights and keys. The foundations of elevator theory became the basis for all elevators over the next 2,000 years.
- B.C. 80 – The Roman Colosseum was built with an integrated network of 24 elevator cages that transport gladiators and wild animals to the arena floor. The elevators were powered by the work of more than 200 slaves.
- 50 BC – Invention of the horizontal axis water wheel. It made him draw strength from the power of flowing water.
- 1203 – Mont St. Michael’s Convent used monkeys to power the treadmill lift.
- 1690-1707 – French inventor Denis Palpin developed the theory of a steam pump that would play a key role in future hydraulic and pneumatic elevators. He also invented the high pressure water steam boiler.
- 1743 – One of the first elevators designed for passenger use is installed in the villa of French king Luis XV at Versailles.
- 1765 – James Watt patented steam engine.
- 1823 – The “Ascending room” was built in London and gave 20 people the opportunity to watch the London panorama from 37 meters high.
- 1829 – The first electric motor prototype was built by American physicist John Henry.
- 1845 – English Sir William Thompson patented the idea of a hydraulic winch.
- 1854 – Elisha Grave Otis introduces the first cabin with self-locking doors that protect passengers from falling from the elevator.
- 1857 – The year the Otis Elevator Company built and installed the first steam elevator for public use in a five-story department store in New York.
- 1870 – A nine-story building in New York City becomes the first building intentionally built with elevator shafts. More than 2000 people used the elevators on the first day.
- 1872 – The first 2-cylinder gas engine is built by German engineers Nickolas August Otto and Eugene Langen.
- 1887 – African American inventor Alexander Miles patented the automatic elevator door system.
- 1878 – The first electric elevator was built in Germany.
- 1909 – 41 buildings in New York City received the first elevators with telephone installed.
- 926 – Ruth Safety Garages in Chicago had elevators that could transport cars in all 3 sizes